How to troubleshoot (some) Dqlite errors

Dqlite is the distributed database that LXD uses to store information that must be synchronized across a cluster. See About the LXD database for more information.

This how-to guide describes strategies for how to respond to Dqlite-related errors.

The Dqlite data directory

When investigating Dqlite-related errors, it’s essential to look at the contents of the Dqlite data directory for the affected node. This is the directory where the local instance of Dqlite stores all its data. You can find this directory at /var/snap/lxd/common/lxd/database/global (if you use the snap) or /var/lib/lxd/database/global (otherwise).

The data directory contains several types of file. The most important types are:

  • Closed segments: These have filenames like 0000000000056436-0000000000056501. The two numbers are the start index and end index. Both indices are inclusive.

  • Open segments: These have filenames like open-1.

  • Snapshot files: These have names like snapshot-1-59392-27900. The first number is the snapshot index.

  • Snapshot metadata files: These have names like snapshot-1-59392-27900.meta and are paired with snapshot files.

Spotting anomalies

When looking at the contents of the data directory, watch for the following symptoms:

  1. Closed segments whose index ranges overlap (remember that these ranges are inclusive).

  2. A closed segment with end index X where the next closed segment has start index greater than X + 1.

  3. A snapshot file with snapshot index X where the next closed segment has start index greater than X + 1.

  4. A snapshot file whose size is less than the size of a previous (lower-numbered) snapshot.

When scanning for these symptoms, start with the most recent snapshots and closed segments (those with the highest indices) since the problem is more likely to be there.

Specific error messages

  • closed segment [...] is past last snapshot [...]: This indicates that you have symptom 3 above (missing entries after a snapshot), possibly combined with symptom 1 (overlapping segments).

  • load closed segment [...]: entries count in preamble is zero: This indicates that the mentioned segment is corrupt.



Before taking any of the actions below, back up the entire Dqlite data directory, so you don’t lose data in case something goes wrong.

Here are some actions you can take in response to specific Dqlite errors. They are not guaranteed to work in any specific case.

  • If you have overlapping closed segments (symptom 1), try deleting some of them to remove the overlap, without creating gaps in the sequence of indices or removing any index that was previously represented.

  • If the snapshot file with the highest index is unexpectedly small (symptom 4), and there are still closed segments covering all the indices up to and including this snapshot’s index, delete the snapshot and its corresponding metadata file.

  • If the last (highest-numbered) closed segment is corrupt, try deleting it. (Deleting closed segments before the last one will create a gap and generally prevent Dqlite from starting.)

Get help

If the tips above don’t help with your situation, you can always post on the LXD support forum. Make sure to mention Dqlite in your post and include the error message or messages you’re seeing, LXD logs, and the output of the following command (if you’re using the LXD snap):

sudo ls -lah /var/snap/lxd/common/lxd/database/global

Also mention any troubleshooting steps you’ve already taken and what you learned.