About performance tuning¶
When you are ready to move your LXD setup to production, you should take some time to optimize the performance of your system. There are different aspects that impact performance. The following steps help you to determine the choices and settings that you should tune to improve your LXD setup.
LXD provides a benchmarking tool to evaluate the performance of your system. You can use the tool to initialize or launch a number of containers and measure the time it takes for the system to create the containers. By running the tool repeatedly with different LXD configurations, system settings or even hardware setups, you can compare the performance and evaluate which is the ideal configuration.
See How to benchmark performance for instructions on running the tool.
Monitor instance metrics¶
LXD collects metrics for all running instances as well as some internal metrics. These metrics cover the CPU, memory, network, disk and process usage. They are meant to be consumed by Prometheus, and you can use Grafana to display the metrics as graphs. See Provided metrics for lists of available metrics and Set up a Grafana dashboard for instructions on how to display the metrics in Grafana.
You should regularly monitor the metrics to evaluate the resources that your instances use. The numbers help you to determine if there are any spikes or bottlenecks, or if usage patterns change and require updates to your configuration.
See How to monitor metrics for more information about metrics collection.
Tune server settings¶
The default kernel settings for most Linux distributions are not optimized for running a large number of containers or virtual machines. Therefore, you should check and modify the relevant server settings to avoid hitting limits caused by the default settings.
Typical errors that you might see when you encounter those limits are:
Failed to allocate directory watch: Too many open files
<Error> <Error>: Too many open files
failed to open stream: Too many open files in...
neighbour: ndisc_cache: neighbor table overflow!
See Server settings for a LXD production setup for a list of relevant server settings and suggested values.
Tune the network bandwidth¶
If you have a lot of local activity between instances or between the LXD host and the instances, or if you have a fast internet connection, you should consider increasing the network bandwidth of your LXD setup. You can do this by increasing the transmit and receive queue lengths.
See How to increase the network bandwidth for instructions.